Numerous compounds deployed in Revita.COR exert protective activities: apigenin (antioxidant and anti-inflammatory), caffeine (regulation of testosterone), ginseng (antioxidant), nano copper peptides (anti-inflammatory and tissue remodeling), spin traps (free-radical quenching), and zinc (proper enzyme function).
Multiple clinical studies suggest that apigenin, known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties, can stimulate hair growth.
Androgen-inducible transforming growth factor β (TGF-β1), found in dermal papilla cells, gives the signal for hair follicles to terminate the anagen growth phase and move into the catagen transitional phase. In one study, human epidermal keratinocytes treated with apigenin showed decreased levels of TGF-β1 expression, thus increased proliferation of both the papilla cells and the keratinocytes.
In a study using murine hair-follicle organ culture, apigenin stimulated the elongation of hair follicles, a process necessary for the anagen phase of hair growth.
As a flavone, apigenin exerts anti-inflammatory activities. In a murine study of the compound’s anti-allergic effects in vivo, researchers experimented with dietary apigenin to treat atopic dermatitis, a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by eczematous skin lesions. The treatment alleviated development of skin lesions significantly.
Known to possess preventive activities against skin tumors induced by ultraviolet radiation such as sunshine, a study using human keratinocyte cell lines found that apigenin inhibited the COX-2 protein, whose over-expression plays an important role in carcinogenesis.
Active caffeine helps to regulate the effects of testosterone. Male pattern baldness is known to occur in individuals with sensitivity to testosterone, causing damage to hair follicles that leads to baldness. Caffeine, a xanthine alkaloid, acts as a central-nervous-system stimulant in humans, warding off drowsiness and restoring alertness.
A university study in Germany used hair samples from the scalps of young men in the first stages of hormone-related hair loss. The study tested hair organ cultures with four compounds: 1) a nutrient-based solution, 2) a testosterone solution, 3) a caffeine solution, and 4) a mixture of caffeine and testosterone.
Solutions that contained caffeine helped to stave off hair loss and encourage hair growth, while those that relied on testosterone alone led to increased hair loss. The results demonstrated that by using caffeine, average growth was increased by 46 percent, and the life cycle of hair was extended by 37 percent, compared to controls.
Modern scientific evidence indicates that roots of the genus Panax, commonly called ginseng, prolong hair-follicle life, exert antioxidant effects, boost the immune system, and provide many other benefits.
Several plant extracts have been investigated for their ability to influence apoptosis, the genetically determined process of cellular self destruction. In multiple published studies of murine hair follicles, ginseng prevented apoptosis. It also aided formation of medullary cells in hair follicles, even after application of gamma radiation.
Modulating the apoptotic process is of great interest to researchers, both for stimulating cell death, such as in treatments against cancer cells, and for inhibiting cell death, such as in treatments to promote hair follicle growth. Phytochemicals from ginseng are likely to prove therapeutic in numerous applications.
A hydrolyzed ginseng-saponin quaternary has been developed as a conditioning agent for the next generation of hair-care products. Its structure includes a hydrophobic group from the aglycon of ginseng saponin, which is biologically active and considered its most important therapeutic component.
Properties of surface tension, conductivity, critical micelle concentration, absorption into hair, tensile strength, and moisture retention have been studied extensively and demonstrated scientifically.
NANO COPPER PEPTIDES
Amino acid groups known as copper peptides have two major properties: 1) as potently protective anti-inflammatory agents that limit oxidative damage after tissue injury and 2) as tissue remodeling agents that remove damaged protein and scar tissue and activate their replacement with normal tissue.
The latest development in copper peptides is a significant reduction in their size. New nano copper peptides, formulated in Revita.COR conditioner, can reach into more tissues to exert even greater efficacy.
Copper peptides are applied primarily to enhance wound healing. They also stimulate production of collagen and may enhance the action of antioxidants. Studies conducted at universities and other research institutes found that copper peptides improved hair transplant success, increased hair follicle size, stimulated hair growth, and reduced hair loss.
In one pioneering study, when scientists at the University of San Francisco Wound Center applied a synthetic copper peptide to the severe wounds of several patients, they healed 30 percent faster, and significant stimulation of follicular cells occurred. One tripeptide complex grew new hair in the wound area.
This discovery led them to try the same copper peptide complex on a female patient who had suffered 90 percent alopecia (hair loss). After six months, she recovered almost all of her hair. Dr. Loren Pickart, a leading authority on copper-peptide technology, analogizes the activity to a protein injection for the scalp. Subsequent tests were conducted with chemotherapy and hair-transplant patients, with great success in stimulating stronger follicles. Properties of surface tension, conductivity, critical micelle concentration, absorption into hair, tensile strength, and moisture retention have been studied extensively and demonstrated scientifically.
Compounds used to measure free-radical activity, spin traps are also employed to produce more stable complexes. The most commonly used spin trap, one by which others are measured, is α-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN).
Studies done over 10 years have tested PBN and other spin traps. They discovered that spin traps exert powerful free-radical-quenching abilities in living systems and could treat a variety of conditions, protect against tissue damage, and complement such antioxidants as vitamins C and E.
Spin traps modulate the NF-κ-B-regulated cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthases that are implicated in pro-inflammatory disease. One method for ameliorating specific cellular dysfunction, such as treating hair loss and stimulating hair growth, is to administer nitroso or nitrone spin traps, which work in part due to high-energy oxygen and hydroxyl free radicals. These agents inhibit the reaction of superoxide and nitric oxide to produce peroxinitrite. PBN can be administered against alopecia to stimulate hair growth. Depending on type of hair loss, daily topical application can inhibit further loss and increase rate of growth, diameter of hair, and follicular neogenesis.
Zinc is necessary for the proper functioning of more than 300 enzymes, and it figures in numerous biological processes. It is a cofactor for the antioxidant superoxide dismutase, and it works in a number of enzymatic reactions of carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
The immune-system activities of zinc include regulation of T lymphocytes, CD4 cells, natural killer cells, and interleukin II. It has been shown to play a role in wound healing, especially following burns and surgical incisions. Zinc may possess antiviral activity. Topical application has proven safe and effective.
An increasing number of studies have examined the efficacy of zinc in treating alopecia, showing some positive results and opening new areas for further research. Other cutaneous conditions under investigation for zinc treatment include acne vulgaris, leg ulcers, and herpes. Zinc deficiency is associated with hair loss and slow wound healing.